Option Propagation

Most options passed to Dagger are passed via @spawn/spawn or delayed directly. This works well when an option only needs to be set for a single thunk, but is cumbersome when the same option needs to be set on multiple thunks, or set recursively on thunks spawned within other thunks. Thankfully, Dagger provides the with_options function to make this easier. This function is very powerful, by nature of using "context variables"; let's first see some example code to help explain it:

function f(x)
    m = Dagger.@spawn myid()
    return Dagger.@spawn x+m
Dagger.with_options(;scope=ProcessScope(2)) do
    @sync begin
        @async @assert fetch(Dagger.@spawn f(1)) == 3
        @async @assert fetch(Dagger.@spawn f(2)) == 4

In the above example, with_options sets the scope for both Dagger.@spawn f(1) and Dagger.@spawn f(2) to ProcessScope(2) (locking Dagger tasks to worker 2). This is of course very useful for ensuring that a set of operations use a certain scope. What it also does, however, is propagates this scope through calls to @async, Threads.@spawn, and Dagger.@spawn; this means that the task spawned by f(x) also inherits this scope! This works thanks to the magic of context variables, which are inherited recursively through child tasks, and thanks to Dagger intentionally propagating the scope (and other options passed to with_options) across the cluster, ensuring that no matter how deep the recursive task spawning goes, the options are maintained.

It's also possible to retrieve the options currently set by with_options, using Dagger.get_options:

Dagger.with_options(;scope=ProcessScope(2)) do
    fetch(@async @assert Dagger.get_options().scope == ProcessScope(2))
    # Or:
    fetch(@async @assert Dagger.get_options(:scope) == ProcessScope(2))
    # Or, if `scope` might not have been propagated as an option, we can give
    # it a default value:
    fetch(@async @assert Dagger.get_options(:scope, AnyScope()) == ProcessScope(2))

This is a very powerful concept: with a single call to with_options, we can apply any set of options to any nested set of operations. This is great for isolating large workloads to different workers or processors, defining global checkpoint/restore behavior, and more.